Wednesday, November 26, 2014

John Milton

John Milton was an English poet and a man of letters. He was a civil servant for the commonwealth of England under Oliver Cromwell. He wrote many poem. He also wrote famous epic 'Paradise Lost'. In his writings, he reflects deep personal convictions, a passion for freedom and self-determination, and the urgent issues and political turbulence of his day. He was very proficient in English, Latin, Greek and Italian. He wrote in all these language at a time. In his life time, he became famous for his wisdom. He achieved international renown within his lifetime.

John Milton was born on Bread Street, London, on 9 December 1608. His father was a famous composer John Milton and mother Sarah Jeffrey. The senior John Milton (1562–1647) moved to London around 1583. As he embraced Protestantism, he was disinherited by his devout Catholic father, Richard Milton. In London, the senior John Milton married Sarah Jeffrey, and found lasting financial success as a scrivener. He lived in, a house on Bread Street, where the Mermaid Tavern was located in Cheapside. The elder Milton was noted for his skill as a musical composer, and this talent left Milton with a lifelong appreciation for music and friendships with musicians such as Henry Lawes.
  
Milton and his first wife, Mary Powell (1625–1652) had four children:
  • Anne (born 7 July 1646)
  • Mary (born 25 October 1648)
  • John (16 March 1651 – June 1652)
  • Deborah (2 May 1652 – ?)
Mary Powell died on 5 May 1652 from complications following Deborah's birth. Milton's daughters survived to adulthood, but he had always a strained relationship with them.
On 12 November 1656, Milton was married again, to Katherine Woodcock. She died on 3 February 1658, less than four months after giving birth to a daughter, Katherine, who also died.
Milton married for a third time on 24 February 1662, to Elizabeth Mynshull (1638–1728), the niece of Thomas Mynshull, a wealthy apothecary and philanthropist in Manchester. Despite a 31-year age gap, the marriage seemed happy, according to John Aubrey, and was to last more than 12 years until Milton's death. Samuel Johnson, however, claims that Mynshull was "a domestic companion and attendant" and that Milton's nephew, Edward Phillips, relates that Mynshull "oppressed his children in his lifetime, and cheated them at his death".
Two nephews (sons of Milton's sister Anne), Edward and John Phillips, were educated by Milton and became writers themselves. John acted as a secretary, and Edward was Milton's first biographer.

Poetry and drama

  • 1631: L'Allegro
  • 1631: Il Penseroso
  • 1634: A Mask Presented at Ludlow Castle, 1634 commonly known as Comus
  • 1638: Lycidas
  • 1645: Poems of Mr John Milton, Both English and Latin
  • 1655: On the Late Massacre in Piedmont
  • 1667: Paradise Lost
  • 1671: Paradise Regained
  • 1671: Samson Agonistes
  • 1673: Poems, &c, Upon Several Occasions

Prose

  • Of Reformation (1641)
  • Of Prelatical Episcopacy (1641)
  • Animadversions (1641)
  • The Reason of Church-Government Urged against Prelaty (1642)
  • Apology for Smectymnuus (1642)
  • Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce (1643)
  • Judgement of Martin Bucer Concerning Divorce (1644)
  • Of Education (1644)
  • Areopagitica (1644)
  • Tetrachordon (1645)
  • Colasterion (1645)
  • The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates (1649)
  • Eikonoklastes (1649)
  • Defensio pro Populo Anglicano [First Defence] (1651)
  • Defensio Secunda [Second Defence] (1654)
  • A Treatise of Civil Power (1659)
  • The Likeliest Means to Remove Hirelings from the Church (1659)
  • The Ready and Easy Way to Establish a Free Commonwealth (1660)
  • Brief Notes Upon a Late Sermon (1660)
  • Accedence Commenced Grammar (1669)
  • History of Britain (1670)
  • Artis logicae plenior institutio [Art of Logic] (1672)
  • Of True Religion (1673)
  • Epistolae Familiaries (1674)
  • Prolusiones (1674)
  • A brief History of Moscovia, and other less known Countries lying Eastward of Russia as far as Cathay, gathered from the writings of several Eye-witnesses (1682)
  • De Doctrina Christiana (1823)

Sunday, November 23, 2014

William Wordsworth

William Wordsworth was born in 7 April 1770 iWordsworth House in Cockermouth, Cumberland, part of the scenic region in northwestern England known as the Lake District. He was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads (1798). He was the second of five children born to John Wordsworth and Ann Cookson.

Shakespeare

Shakespeare is the most versatile genius in the field of English literature specially in drama. He is the most brightest star, most prominent dramatist in his era. He has conquered time limit. His writings passed the test of time. Though he was not well educated, the composed dramas which represent universal feeling, a feeling which is present in all human being of all ages and of all country or region in the world. Shakespeare was born in 26 April, 1556 in  Stratford-on-Avon. Shakespeare was born and brought up in Stratford-on-Avon. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children: Susanna, and twins Hamnet and JudithHe was a baptized. He was a poet, playwright, dramatist. He is often called 'the national poet of England' and 'the bird of Avon'. He wrote 38 plays, 154 sonnets and two long narrative poems. Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1589 and 1613. His early plays were mainly comedies and histories and these works remain regarded as some of the best work produced in these genres even today.

A List of Shakespeare's writings:

Comedy

History

Tragedy

Poetry

All's Well That Ends Well
As You Like It
The Comedy of Errors
Cymbeline
Love's Labours Lost
Measure for Measure
The Merry Wives of Windsor
The Merchant of Venice
A Midsummer Night's Dream
Much Ado About Nothing
Pericles, Prince of Tyre
Taming of the Shrew
The Tempest
Troilus and Cressida
Twelfth Night
Two Gentlemen of Verona
Winter's Tale
Henry IV, part 1 
Henry IV, part 2 
Henry V Henry VI, part 1 
Henry VI, part 2 
Henry VI, part 3
 Henry VIII 
King John 
Richard II 
Richard III
Antony and Cleopatra
Coriolanus
Hamlet
Julius Caesar
King Lear
Macbeth
Othello
Romeo and Juliet
Timon of Athens
Titus Andronicus
The Sonnets
A Lover's Complaint
The Rape of Lucrece
Venus and Adonis
Funeral Elegy by W.S.

Short Questions and Answers:

Wednesday, November 19, 2014

Novel

Novel is a lengthy fictional narrative in prose dealing with characters, incidents and setting that imitate those found in real life. Usually the novel is concerned with the description of middle class or working class people engaged in such ordinary pursuits falling love; getting married; traveling; making money; contending with their environment, with other characters, or with their own limitations. But these are not hard-and-fast requirements. There are my types of novel. An accurate definition of every genre is difficult. The main elements that critics discuss are: how the narrative and the plot, is constructed; the themes, settings, and characterization; how language is used; and the way that plot, character, and setting relate to reality.
'The Power of Sympathy' is the fast truly American novel by William Hill Brown. The 'Scarlet Letter' by Nathaniel Hawthorne is appeared in 1850. Today the novel remains the most popular and most widely read form of literature.

Drama

Drama is a kind of literary work written in dialogue to be performed before on audience by actors on a stage. All form of drama need a story, actions that develop the story and actors who impersonate the characters of the story. In the broad sense, drama refers to the composition and performance of plays.
Despite continuing experimentation and innovation through the ages, however, the basic elements of drama have remain unchanged. There are many kind of drama i.e. absurd drama, morality play, miracle play, chronicle play, comedy, tragedy, melodrama, no-drama, one-act play etc.

Monday, November 17, 2014

Epic

Epic: Epic is a long narrative poem in lofty style, set in a remote time and place. It deals with heroic characters and deeds which are important in history and legend. The characteristics of epic are:
  • The epic hero is larger than life, having super human power.
  • The action is simple, presenting a central incident.
  • Super natural forces (god, demons, angles) influence and participate in the action.
  • Epic form is highly traditional and employs many conventions.
  • Style is objective, elevated and dignified.
Homer's Iliad, John Milton's Paradise Lost are  good examples of epic.

Renewable Engergy

Modern world is running with the power of fossil fuel, a king of energy source are hydrocarbons, primarily coal, fuel oil or natural gas, formed from the remains of dead plants and animals. But this kind of fuel are limited and it will run out sooner of later. But with the increase of population the demand of fuel is going high. Scientists predict that our fossil fuel will run out within mid of the next century. So the necessity of alternative energy source become very important. Renewable energy can solve these problem. Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that comes from resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat. Renewable energy can replace conventional fuel in four distinct areas: electricity generation, hot water/space heating, motor fuels, and rural (off-grid) energy services. Like many developed country, Bangladesh is also working with the technology that can produce renewable energy. The government has installed the biggest solar power plant on the rooftop of the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics building in Dhaka. The plant with a 200 kwp (kilowatt peak) generation capacity, equivalent to lighting up 5,000 bulbs of 40 watts, will meet a significant portion of the building's demand for electricity.

Climate Change and its impacts on Bangladesh

Climate change is just one of the destructive forces to blight south-western Bangladesh. Naturally occurring events (which are independent of climate change), and poor governance, are also weighing heavily on this troubled region. In order to effectively combat the destructive processes that combine to shape this corner of South Asia it is crucial that we gain a proper understanding of the issues at hand. We can begin by acting to distinguish between the causes of the impacts we see, and not settling for the use of ‘climate change’ as a one-size-fits-all explanation. The southwest corner of Bangladesh is not an easy place to live in. If you speak with villagers in districts like Satkhira (who count the Bengal tiger as a neighbour) you quickly realise you are talking with some of the most resilient people on the planet. The scale of problems they face can be difficult to comprehend: extreme poverty pervades the lives of many, the seasons are changing and rains are coming later, agricultural yields are decreasing, flooding and water-logging is decimating livelihoods, freshwater is becoming scarce as salinity increases and powerful cyclones demolish homes and erase lives. People don’t cite Bangladesh as the frontline of climate change for nothing. By the year 2050 sea levels here are expected to rise by up to 40 centimetres. Average temperatures, which have risen 0.74°C in the past 60 years, are predicted to jump up to a further 4°C by the close of the century. There is little doubt that climate change will have a profound effect in Bangladesh. Experts anticipate further decreases in food security and the availability of freshwater and increased flooding. One model predicts that by the year 2100 climate change will displace a staggering 16-20 million people in Bangladesh; a group roughly twice the current population of the Dhaka city!

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