Wednesday, May 4, 2016

What is the Remedy and Prevention of Health Hazards Caused by Microbes?

Prevention and remedy of health hazards caused by microbes

For prevention and remedy of the diseases caused by Virus, Bacteria, Fungi and Entamoeba, a joint effort is needed to follow the rules of hygiene carefully. It should be kept in mind that a weak health runs the risk of being attacked by diseases. So everybody should take balanced diet regularly according to body need.

Only meat and fish cannot meet the demand of the balanced food. Only fish and meat can not fulfill the requirement of balanced diet. Taking vegetables and fruits along with these can fulfill the demand of balanced diet. Vitamins and mineral salts are important for maintaining good health and developing resistance against diseases. Next comes the use of sanitary latrine, cleaning and washing hands and mouth following health rules. Having regular nail cuts, brushing the tooth and taking bath using toilet soap is also very important for the prevention of diseases. Not spitting on the road, using masks or handkerchief while walking in dusty road and covering face with handkerchief while coughing and sneezing are good efforts for resisting spreading of germs. After wiping of cough with the handkerchief, it is essential to wash it on returning home. If possible you can use tissue paper for wiping cough. One should avoid using or coming in contact with usable things of the diseased persons. It is important that drinking water should be safe. To avoid cholera, Typhoid and bacterial diseases it is a must to take safe drinking water. We should use safe water for drinking, bathing, washing clothes and utensils. Water from arsenic free tube well is safe. Even clear water from ponds and rivers should be boiled properly before use. Man, animal and birds should be treated properly when they are ill. Birds with bird flue virus should be killed and buried under the soil. Cattle when suffer from mad cow or anthrax diseases should be killed because during its treatment other animals may be attacked with such diseases.


Virus

These are simplest organisms. Body maily composed of Protein and Nucleic Acid. If Nucleic acid gets out of protein coating they lose all characters of life. But it is interesting that if the constituents are gathered again they got the signs of life again.
Virus is true parasite that is they have no existence without living host. Outside of living host they do not show any signs of life

Virus may be round, rod shaped, tadpole like or bread shaped. Virus causes Pox, Measles, Sneezing, Influenza etc. in human body. Trungro of rice and mosaic diseases of tobacco caused by Virus. Pox, Measles, Sneezing, Influenza etc are airborne diseases.

Bacteria: 

We have learnt about bacteria in the previous class, now we are to have a
broader look. Bacteria is non green, unicellular microscopic Organisms with primitive
nucleus. Antony von Leuen Hoek found the for the first time. Bacteria cell may be rod
shaped, rounded, comma shaped or spiral.
Bacteria can be classified according to their
shape as follows

a. Coccus: Rounded shaped bacteria cell
are named as coccus. They remain
singly or in groups. Such as Pneumonia
causing Bacteria.
b. Bacillus: These are elongated rod shaped
bacteria. Tetanus, Blood Dysentery etc are caused by Bacillus.
c. Comma: Shaped like bend rod. Such as Bacteria causing Human Cholera.
d. Spirilum: Spiral Bacteria.

Usefulness of Bacteria: 

• Helps in decomposition of dead bodies and organic wastes.
• Only bacteria fixes nitrogen in the soil.
• Helps in removing jute fibres.
• Used in preparation of curds.
• Preparation of life saving Antibiotics.
• Very much important in Genetic engineering and in laboratory research.


Role of microbes in creating health hazards

Health Hazards Caused by Microbes

Bacteria may get entrance in many different processes. Dirty hands may act as suitable carrier. Bacteria can enter into the mouth through dirty hand. Bacterial spores may also be transported with the clothes that we use. Bacterial spores may travel from one place to another with the dust in the air. 
We used to shake hands and exchange salam when we meet each other. Bacteria may easily get transferred through shaking hands. Germs disperses easily through stale and rotten foods. These microbes sometimes are waterborne and
get dispersed dangerously with water. In the past due to this type of germs a
huge number of villagers perished. Cholera and Typhoid are bacterial diseases.
Once spread of diseases caused by virus, bacteria and Entamoeba was very high. Now we can say that it was caused due to shortage of safe water. Defecation
and urination hither and thither create risk in public health. Animals feeding on
these fecal matters disperse the germs from one place to another. Besides, the
rain water and tidal water also spread the germs to distant places. Like fecal
matters, there is a chance that saliva may spread the germs. Spitting here and
there may spread virus and bacteria and create threat to public health. Returning
from the latrine if hands are not washed properly with soap or ash, there is a
chance of entering the germ into the mouth and ultimately settles in the stomach.

In some village areas there is no sanitary latrine and the people use fields or unhygienic
latrines for defecation. Entamoeba infested fecal matters get mixed with the soil.
Handling that soil contaminates hands. Vegetables grown in those soils are also
contaminated. Vegetables sometimes contaminated with Entamoeba germs. After normal
cooking Entamoeba germs are still alive. Entamoeba is transmitted in these ways.
When infected with virus, sometimes it is cured normally within 2/4 days without any
medical help. But some diseases need long term treatment. Virus particles of cough and
cold spread through coughing and sneezing. Mosaic diseases of plants are transmitted
with simple contact. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) disease is still not
curable. This disease is transmitted when blood from infected person is taken, taking
drugs by those who are addicted, using same needle while taking injectable medicines and
involvement in immoral trafficking. Mumps, Pox, Measles etc. are very painful diseases.
These viral diseases are transmitted through air and get into the respiratory tract.

Tuesday, May 3, 2016

Virus and bacteria

Virus and bacteria 

‘Virus’ is a minute parasitic organism composed of nucleic acid and protein, which can show few living characteristics while in a living cell.
‘Virus’ means poison. They cannot be seen without electron microscope. Virus particles have no cell wall, plasma membrane, organized nucleus a virus particle cytoplasm etc. So virus body is called acellular. They are composed of only protein coating and nucleic acid (DNA or RNA). A T2 Bacteriophage virus has head, tail and tail fibres. Virus,Ricketsia, Fungi, Bacteria, Algae, and Protozoa etc. are present in our environment in innumerable numbers. Most of them are harmless. Of course some of
them are responsible for producing diseases in human body. Now we will know about few microorganisms

Virus:

These are simplest organisms. Body maily composed of Protein and Nucleic Acid. If Nucleic acid gets out of protein coating they lose all characters of life. But it is interesting that if the constituents are gathered again they got the signs of life again. Virus is true parasite that is they have no existence without living host. Outside of living host they do not show any signs of life.
Virus may be round, rod shaped, tadpole like or bread shaped. Virus causes Pox, Measles, Sneezing, Influenza etc. in human body. Trungro of rice and mosaic diseases of tobacco caused by Virus. Pox, Measles, Sneezing, Influenza etc are airborne diseases

Bacteria: 

We have learnt about bacteria in the previous class, now we are to have a
broader look. Bacteria is non green, unicellular microscopic Organisms with primitive nucleus. Antony von Leuen Hoek found the for the first time. Bacteria cell may be rod shaped, rounded, comma shaped or spiral.
Bacteria can be classified according to their shape as follows
a. Coccus: Rounded shaped bacteria cell
are named as coccus. They remain
singly or in groups. Such as Pneumonia
causing Bacteria.
b. Bacillus: These are elongated rod shaped
bacteria. Tetanus, Blood Dysentery etc are caused by Bacillus.
c. Comma: Shaped like bend rod. Such as Bacteria causing Human Cholera.
d. Spirilum: Spiral Bacteria.

Usefulness of Bacteria: 

• Helps in decomposition of dead bodies and organic wastes.
• Only bacteria fixes nitrogen in the soil.
• Helps in removing jute fibres.
• Used in preparation of curds.
• Preparation of life saving Antibiotics.
• Very much important in Genetic engineering and in laboratory research.

What is Microbial World?

Microbial world 

Can we realize the existence of thousands of microorganisms in the air around us?
Number of invisible organisms outnumbers greatly the organisms that can be seen by bare eyes.
Microbes cannot be seen with naked eyes. So, microscopes are needed to see them.
Virus cannot be seen under a light microscope. To see virus particles electron microscope is needed.
Whittaker and Margulis proposed to place microorganisms under Monera, Protista and
Fungi kingdoms according to five kingdom classifications. Now the microbiologists
classify the microorganisms into three kingdoms.

Kingdoms of Microbial Word:

Kingdom – 1: Akaryota or Acellular: These organisms are so small that they cannot be seen even under a light microscope. An electron microscope is needed to observe them, such as – Virus. 

Kingdom – 2: Prokaryota or Primitive celled: Members of this kingdom do not have well organized nucleus. Cell without organized nucleus is termed primitive cell, such as Bacteria.

Kingdom – 3: Eukaryota or True Celled: Microbes having true cells are called 
Eukaryota. Algae, Fungi and Protozoa are Eukaryotic microbes.

LOWER ORGANISMS

Virus, Bacteria, Fungi, Algae, Amoeba etc. are called lower organisms. Virus, Bacteria and Amoeba are not visible without the help of a microscope. These are microorganisms. Few fungi and algae can be seen with bare eyes but other need microscopic support. These lower organisms cause disease of man, domestic animals, birds and economic
plants. These organisms also have beneficial effects on environment.

What is the Remedy and Prevention of Health Hazards Caused by Microbes?

Prevention and remedy of health hazards caused by microbes For prevention and remedy of the diseases caused by Virus, Bacteria, Fungi an...